The marked a major turning point in Earth’s ecology and humans’ relationship with their environment. The Industrial Revolution dramatically changed every aspect of human life and lifestyles. The impact on the world’s psyche would not begin to register until the early 1960s, some 200 years after its beginnings. From human development, health and life longevity, to social improvements and the impact on natural resources, public health, energy usage and sanitation, the effects were profound.
While the existence of an industrial revolution is hard to dispute, its chronology and causes are more open to discussion. Technologically, the United States took its first steps toward mass production almost immediately after independence, and had caught up with Great Britain by the 1830s. Following the British lead, American innovation was concentrated in cotton and transportation. In 1793, after fifteen years of experimentation in the Philadelphia and Boston areas, Samuel Slater set up the country's first profitable cotton-spinning factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Thomas Jefferson's decision in 1807 to stop trade with Europe, and the subsequent War of 1812 with Great Britain, created a protected environment for American manufacturers, and freed commercial capital. This led to such ventures as the Boston Manufacturing Company, founded under the impulse of Boston merchant Francis Cabot Lowell in 1813 in Waltham, Massachusetts. The company's investors went on to create a whole series of new factories in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1822. Thanks to a combination of immigrant British technicians, patent infringements, industrial espionage, and local innovations, American power looms were on a par
In the 19th Industrial Revolution In India Essay century the Industrial Revolution spread Industrial Revolution In India Essay to the United States, Germany, In Southeast Asia, India, and Industrial Revolution In India Essay much of Latin AmericaвЂ”areas that were
Cheap cotton textiles increased the demand for raw cotton; previously, it had primarily been consumed in regions where it was grown, with little raw cotton available for export. Consequently, prices of raw cotton rose. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, cotton was grown in small plots in the Old World — the uncrowned Americas were far better able to recruit available land with the potential for new cotton production. Some cotton had been grown in the West Indies, particularly in Haiti, but Haitian cotton production was halted by the in 1791. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 allowed Georgia green seeded cotton to be profitable, leading to widespread growth of cotton in the United States and Brazil. (A strain of cotton seed brought to Natchez in 1806, , would become the parent genetic material for over 90% of world cotton production to come: it produced that were three to four times faster to pick.) The Americas, particularly the U.S., had labor shortages and high priced labor, which made attractive. America's cotton plantations were highly efficient and profitable, and able to keep up with demand. The U.S. Civil war created a "cotton famine" that lead to increased production in other areas of the world, including new colonies in Africa.
American Industrial Revolution Essay | Assignment Essays
The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution. The emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in gave rise to an unprecedented level of in industrial centers; after 1900 the large volume of industrial discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. The first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's , passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution ( ) given off by the , used to produce . An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution. The responsibilities of the inspectorate were gradually expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958 which placed all major heavy industries that emitted , grit, dust and fumes under supervision.
An Overview of the American Industrial Revolution Essay …
existed before the Industrial Revolution but with the increase in population and education it became more visible. Many children were forced to work in relatively bad conditions for much lower pay than their elders, 10–20% of an adult male's wage. Children as young as four were employed. Beatings and long hours were common, with some child and working from 4 am until 5 pm. Conditions were dangerous, with some children killed when they dozed off and fell into the path of the carts, while others died from gas explosions. Many children developed and other diseases and died before the age of 25. would sell orphans and abandoned children as "pauper apprentices", working without wages for board and lodging. Those who ran away would be whipped and returned to their masters, with some masters them to prevent escape. Children employed as by would crawl under machinery to pick up cotton, working 14 hours a day, six days a week. Some lost hands or limbs, others were crushed under the machines, and some were decapitated. Young girls worked at match factories, where phosphorus fumes would cause many to develop . Children employed at were regularly burned and blinded, and those working at were vulnerable to poisonous clay dust.
In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines. As late as the year 1900, most industrial workers in the United States still worked a 10-hour day (12 hours in the steel industry), yet earned from 20% to 40% less than the minimum deemed necessary for a decent life; however, most workers in textiles, which was by far the leading industry in terms of employment, were women and children. Also, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. was very static and often cruel – , dirty living conditions, and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution.
Essay about The Industrial Revolution in America 1118 Words | 5 Pages
Great Britain provided the legal and cultural foundations that enabled to pioneer the industrial revolution. Key factors fostering this environment were: (1) The period of peace and stability which followed the unification of England and Scotland; (2) no trade barriers between England and Scotland; (3) the rule of law (enforcing property rights and respecting the sanctity of contracts); (4) a straightforward legal system that allowed the formation of joint-stock companies (corporations); (5) absence of tolls, which had largely disappeared from Britain by the 15th century, but were an extreme burden on goods elsewhere in the world, and (6) a free market (capitalism).