Cooper et al. (2003) involved 120 women who had recently become mothers in interpersonal CBT, aimed to help the women to change their roles, improve their behaviors and enhance their psychosocial functioning. Cooper et al. (2003) found that CBT was an effective approach to postnatal depression and, more importantly, helped to prevent postpartum depression in 35 economically disadvantaged women. Simultaneously, CBT appeared to be no more effective than a combination of psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment or pharmacological treatment alone (namely, fluoxetine). The author reported that the effects of various types of psychotherapy, including CBT, on postnatal depression in women were mostly the same. The results of the study by Spek et al. (2007) were similar: Spek et al. (2007) used Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy to women diagnosed with postnatal depression and concluded that Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes did not differ significantly from the standard approaches to CBT and PPD. The use of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in treatment effects similar to those in the waiting list groups; in other words, CBT did not lead to any tangible treatment results (Spek et al., 2007). In a similar fashion, it was found empirical evidence that psychological treatments, including CBT, had only moderate effects on PPD outcomes. Some slight effects of CBT on treatment outcomes were readily observed, but the effect size found in the treatment group was much smaller than expected. By contrast, pharmacological treatments of PPD had higher effect sizes, meaning that the use of pharmacological treatments was a more relevant approach to PPD. One possible reason why pharmacological treatments are more effective than psychotherapy is that biological factors in PPD are much more pronounced than mood and psychological issues. It is also possible that smaller effect sizes are associated with the use of care-as-usual control groups, which reduce the significance of statistical findings. Yet, even if the results of CBT in PPD treatment are distorted short-term, there is no evidence that CBT is a relevant approach to postnatal depression in long-term perspectives. The course and development of postnatal depression in women make it difficult to trace the changes in women’s psychological health in the long run. More difficult is the analysis of CBT and its long-term effects on women. In light of these findings, CBT can be a useful element of PPD treatment, when used in a combination with other treatment options, for example, pharmacological treatment.
According to Horowitz and Goodman (2004), an optimal strategy to treat PPD in women must always involve a coordinated team of interdisciplinary professionals and rely on a family-centered approach. Since nurses contact postnatal women most frequently, they are to become the primary carriers of anti-depression strategies and messages for women (Horowitz & Goodman 2004). Horowitz and Goodman (2004) suggested that CBT exemplified a form of time-limited treatment, typically lasting between 12 and 14 weeks. The principal benefits of CBT in postnatal depression treatment were that it emphasized the centrality of individual and the role of individual thoughts and behaviors (Horowitz & Goodman, 2004). The goal of CBT in PPD treatment is to learn how to replace negative thoughts and thinking patterns to develop more desirable emotional reactions (Horowitz & Goodman, 2004). The efficacy of CBT in postnatal depression was supported by Cooper et al. (2003). Cuijpers et al. (2010) also recommended that partner involvement in CBT would improve treatment outcomes. However, CBT is claimed not to be strategically more effective than other types of psychotherapies and pharmacological treatments.
In a similar fashion, Cuijpers et al (2010) examined the effect sizes of 117 trials that compared psychotherapy to other control conditions in postpartum women with major depressive symptoms. Cuijpers et al. (2010) calculated the mean effect size (0.67), which after the adjustment to publication bias was reduced to 0.42. These results suggest that the potential benefits of CBT in treating postnatal depression are significantly overestimated, due to publication bias (Cuijpers et al., 2010). It is out of question that meta-analyses display considerable flaws; in most cases, secondary data analyses make it impossible to reduce the authors’ prejudice and bias. However, even with the bias and prejudice considered, these results do not contradict to the current thought in CBT and its application in postpartum depression. These results warrant further empirical study of CBT and its relationship with other therapies, namely, antidepressant and hormonal treatments.
This course will equip you with a valuable professional insight into topics including the causes of addiction and how Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and other evidence based psychotherapies can be used to help address stress, depression,chronic pain and other related disorders.
term paper on Case Study: Depression & CBT - Planet Papers
Several studies- have evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive therapy or CBT in patients who have residual depressive symptoms following adequate antidepressant therapy—a group with high rates of relapse and persistent symptoms. Two small studies of 40 patients with unipolar major depression and residual symptoms following antidepressant therapy showed that patients treated with CBT initially had fewer residual symptoms and fewer depressive episodes after six years compared with those treated with clinical therapy.
based on CBT to help you overcome common problems like depression
Although most studies have evaluated adult populations, few have evaluated the effect of CBT in adolescents. A meta-analysis of six studies with 191 patients showed that CBT was significantly more effective than placebo or inactive interventions in managing adolescent depressive disorder (36 versus 62 percent, NNT = 4). Although these findings were demonstrated only in mild to moderate depression, the results warrant further study.
Family physicians usually are the first to diagnose and treat patients with depression. They should inform patients that psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are valid options, and that cognitive therapy, and therefore CBT, is the most studied psychotherapy. If the patient and physician initially elect to use pharmacotherapy, and the patient does not respond adequately, the physician should again suggest adding psychotherapy or CBT. CBT should be strongly considered as initial therapy for patients with severe or chronic depression or for adolescents. If the patient declines referral, or if the family physician provides CBT, longer appointments could be scheduled. Resources are available for the physician and patient , and further physician training should be considered.
is the primary cause of their depression and CBT does not take ..
Numerous studies and meta-analyses- demonstrate convincingly that cognitive therapy or CBT effectively treats patients with unipolar major depression. Several studies- have shown that cognitive therapy is superior to no treatment or to placebo. Two comprehensive meta-analyses showed that cognitive therapy is as effective as interpersonal or brief psychodynamic therapy in managing depression. They also showed that cognitive therapy is as effective and possibly more effective than pharmacotherapy in managing mild to moderate unipolar depression.