All movements, then, of the child in his human relations, become invested with compulsiveness and indiscriminateness. Under some circumstances, one form of movement predominates, and the others are repressed, but also operate, and determine feelings, and patterns of behavior and traits. If, for example the predominant movement of the child to relieve his anxiety is towards people, most of his energies are diverted in this direction, to win them over, at the expense of total personality development. Now, in the service of these movements, special needs are developed as well as special qualities. So you see, now, that the personality traits which are most in evidence in children — whether they are only-children or non-onlies — are merely representative of the predominant character trend; that is, the predominant way to cope with life and with people. Since both onlies and non-onlies are likely to be exposed to early adverse influences, we would not expect to find any one set of personality traits more characteristic of onliness than another set of traits. Wherever one form of movement predominates, we find corresponding traits. The selfishness and hypersensitivity which theorists consider characteristic of onliness are, in reality, characteristic of distorted personality development or neurotic difficulties. So they are [a] neurotic phenomenon common to all neurotic individuals. These traits are also, therefore, common to only-children. For instance, lack of self-reliance or excessive aggressiveness, or shyness and withdrawal, can be seen in the population as a whole. I have not noted that only-children display one form of movement in relation to people any more than another. The understanding of personality is considerably deepened by viewing separate aspects in the sphere of reference of the total personality structure. In the same way, we get a broader view of the factors influencing personality development if we keep in mind the totality of factors. I believe that, as in the case of personality traits, so you shall see, in what follows, that onliness in and of itself is just one factor, and a secondary one, in comparison to the effect of the adult’s personality strivings which influence the personality development of the child.
Psychotherapies are treatments that use psychological resources instead of biological to treat disorders and to help understand our own thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and coping mechanism.
Most common therapies are:
– Psychodynamic therapies help to uncover repressed childhood experiences that are currently affecting the individual. Psychoanalysis is the first psychodynamic therapy developed Freud, using free association, dream analysis, and transference.
– Interpersonal therapy, helps people to understand and handle their problems, it is very effective to use it on individuals suffering from depression and bipolar disorder.
– Person-centered therapy helps the individual to accept and free himself or herself and to achieve self-actualization.
– Gestalt therapy developed by Fritz Perls, helps individual to accept personal responsibility for their actions rather than blaming others.
Murphy and Freud are among the social scientists considered to be great contributors to the field of social sciences. Murphy, for example, studied disability and the issues that result with it. On the other hand, Sigmund Freud writes about personality development in young children, describing the concepts of the id, ego, and the superego. This paper will examine the medical cause of Murphy’s disability, the resulting attitudes of non-disabled people towards him, and his study of disability. The study will also highlight Freud’s explanation of the personality development stages.
One should never carry his/her attitude or personal grudges to work. Office is not a place where you can be rude to others just because you had a fight with your friend last night. Personality development sessions help you differentiate between your personal as well as professional life. It is really essential to keep a balance between both the lives to lead a peaceful and stress free life.
Role Of Education In Personality Development
The aspects of the existence of an individual are numerous,most of which are genetically determined and in the majority ofcases, environment has a critical role in the completion of whatnature has started. Personality and its changes over life spanare a good example on such phenomenon. Personality is definedas the distinguishing characteristics of an individual whichdifferentiate him/her from others when displayed in a widevariety of situations and circumstances especially social ones (1). In fact, the development of personality which is the outcome aspreviously mentioned of interaction between genetic make-up of anindividual and his environment, starts prenatally or even beforeconception since genetics has something to do with it. Inchildren, personality has a considerable potential for growth andchanges i.e. very flexible, but it is rigid i.e. unalterable inadults (1). Personality and its development are under influenceof some determinants. Environment is considered the majorextrinsic one (2). Cultural, racial, socioeconomic,educational, social guidance and health conditions could beenvironmental factors playing a critical role in personalitydevelopment (3). The intrinsic factors could be biologicaldrives, such as the homeostatic, sexual, defensive andassimilatory drives, and hereditary temperamental differences (2). Parental education, health and emotional states, socialinteraction are other factors which influence personalitydevelopment. Several theories were stated explaining thedevelopment of personality, each of which dealt with the conceptof personality development from a different point of view. Forexample, the Psychoanalytic theory that was developed by Freuddealt with personality development from a sexual point of viewand was concerned mainly with emotional development (4). Thelearning theory is another theory of personality development thatis concerned mainly with child and his social background andwhich rose the idea of that behavior is modified by experience (4). The Psychoanalytic development theory was modified by ErikErikson and Stack Sullivan. The later emphasized the importanceof interpersonal transactions between parents and child and thechild's development in a social system. Erikson formulatedeight stages of psychosocial development focusing upon thespecific developmental tasks of each phase (psychosocial crisis)(4). Generally, the life cycle is divided into eightdevelopmental stages the details of each of which are going to bediscussed in the body of this essay. These stages are: infancy,toddler hood, preschool child, school child, adolescence, youngadulthood, middle years and old age (5).
Physical Education to the Personality ..
« I feel that with regard to these difficulties experiences of the kind reported in the chapter on occasional self-analysis are encouraging. In several instances reported there the persons concerned had little if any experience with analytical treatment. To be sure, they did not go far enough in their endeavors at self-examination. But there seems no good reason not to believe that with a more widespread general knowledge of the nature of neurotic troubles and the ways of tackling them attempts of this kind can be carried further—always provided the severity of the neurosis is not prohibitive. The structure of personality is so much less rigid in milder neurotic entanglements than in severe ones that even attempts that are not carried very far may help considerably. In severe neuroses it is often necessary to do a great deal of analytical work before any liberating effect is achieved. In milder disturbances even a single uncovering of an unconscious conflict may be the turning point toward a freer development. But even if we grant that a considerable number of people can profitably analyze themselves, will they ever complete the work? Will there not always be problems left that are not solved or not even touched upon? My answer is that there is no such thing as a complete analysis. And this answer is not given in a spirit of resignation. Certainly the greater the degree of transparency and the more freedom we can attain, the better for us.
Describe the most important points in object relations theory that differentiate it from Classical (freudian) Psychoanalysis.
Object relations theory is a more recent development of psychoanalysis that attempts to explain the mechanisms that work to shape the id, ego, and super ego. Many of Freud's theories have stood the test of time in some circles in psychology; however the theories lack a physical component that can explain the mind and body interaction. The object relations theory seems to target some of the vagueness in the way the mind forms its psyche during development.
The theory proposes that during early development, the mind forms "objects" that develop in a response to the environment in infancy. These objects form in the subconscious that follows a person throughout adulthood. The object is the thing that the subject is related to through experience. For example, I love my children. My……
Development & personality essay
Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).
Discussion of Topic
When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,……