Other more critical elements of the Hippocratic Oath such as the strict prohibition of euthanasia and abortion seem to be rather debatable and raise the vital question of how to distinguish between valuable and less valuable principles it proposes. In contemporary bioethics, euthanasia is---in general---widely regarded as an eligible autonomous decision of the patient that must be respected. With regard to abortion, most bioethicists believe that it should be allowed, at least, under certain circumstances, but this issue is still hotly debated and causes many emotional responses. The upshot is that one needs a more fundamental theoretical analysis of the particular elements of the Hippocratic Oath in order to determine possible traditional shortcomings in more detail before one accepts them as a fixed set of unquestionable professional rules. Furthermore, the idea that “the physician knows best” and should be able to act against the will of the patient for the benefit of the patient (that is, the patriarchal model of the physician-patient relationship) also originated in ancient times. The competence of the physician was too overwhelming for most people so that they almost always complied with the physician’s advice.
There are a number of important traditional issues in medical ethics that still need to be solved. These include beginning- and end-of-life issues (notably abortion, euthanasia, and limiting therapeutic treatments), the physician-patient relationship, research on human beings (including research ethics and human genetics). More recent medical issues include reproductive decision making, organ transplantation, just distribution of healthcare resources, access to healthcare, and most recently vital issues concerning healthcare systems and (global) public health. In the twentieth century, medical ethics was focused on−but not limited to− two main issues: the concept of personhood (for example, the Singer debate) and the principle of autonomy (that is, individual informed consent). The rise of autonomy in the context of the physician-patient relationship can be seen as the counter-movement to paternalism in healthcare. Both vital issues pervaded many debates in medical ethics in the past and can been seen as key issues that shaped the discussions in academia, at the theoretical level, and were highly influential on the ward, that is in practice, as well.
The matter of abortion, the quintessential bioethics topic, raises intensely personal issues for many people. It is a polarising and divisive issue that raises discussions about morals, science, medicine, sexuality, autonomy, religion, and politics. A central matter is deciding what we can say about unborn children, initially known as embryos and later, foetuses. What is their moral status – how much do they matter, and what are our obligations towards them? The matter of 'personhood' arises, as a philosophical and legal discussion about what rights to grant them.
Reflection Paper – Abortion
The word abortion by definition means the induced expulsion of a fetus from the womb before it is able to survive independently. Abortion is an extremely controversial issue because while some people are completely against it, others believe that a woman should have the right to choose. I believe that abortion is morally and ethically wrong.
In my opinion, when a woman chooses to have sex, she is taking a chance. She does this of her own free will, and is in control over what she is doing. If a person decides to have sex, whether it is done with protection or not, the result is her responsibility and she must be willing to deal with the consequences. One such consequence is getting pregnant. When a woman gets pregnant, it is usually a result of her own choices, even if the pregnancy is unwanted or unplanned.
The most obvious reason why I think that abortion is immoral is because it is the intentional killing of a human being. It is a well-known fact that life begins at the moment of conception. If it is murder to kill a human being in any stage of life, then abortion, the murder of the fetus, is obviously wrong, because murder is one of the ethical absolutes. When we perform an abortion, we take the life of an innocent child. We deny the unborn child its right to live and experience the world. No one has thee right to take the life of another person, even an unborn child. Furthermore, abortion denies the mother the joy and opportunity to raise the baby, and in the long run, usually ends up hurting the mother as the emotional effects become worse and worse. This problem is even more common when there is pressure by others on the woman to have the abortion, and she does so reluctantly.
Another reason why I do not believe abortions should be done is because of the many risks involved for the woman undergoing the abortion. The risks involved are both medical and emotional. The medical risks when perfo...
free essay on The Ethics of Abortion - ECheat
Feminist bioethics developed from the early 1970s on and was initially focused on medical ethics (Holmes and Purdy 1992, Warren 1992, Tong 1997); proponents later extended the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics (Plumwood 1986, Warren, 1987, Mies and Shiva 1995, Donovan 2008). Important topics in feminist bioethics are concerned with the correct understanding of autonomy as relational autonomy (Sherwin 1992, 1998, Mackenzie and Stoljar 2000, Donchin 2001), a strong focus on care (Kittay 1999), the claim for an equal and just treatment of women in order to fight against discrimination within healthcare professions and institutions on many different levels (Miles 1991, Tong 2002). In more detail, from a feminist perspective the following bioethical issues are of great importance: abortion, reproductive medicine, justice and care, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, sex selection, exploitation and abuse of women, female genital circumcision, breast cancer, contraception and HIV, equal access to (and quality of) healthcare and healthcare resources, global bioethics and cultural issues. The main line of reasoning is to make a well informed ethical decision which is not gender biased and to appeal to important core values. Feminist bioethics is by nature particularistic and in this respect it is similar to many virtue ethical approaches and casuistry.
The Ethics of Abortion - Punkerslut
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. In recent years applied ethical issues have been subdivided into convenient groups such as medical ethics, business ethics, , and . Generally speaking, two features are necessary for an issue to be considered an "applied ethical issue." First, the issue needs to be controversial in the sense that there are significant groups of people both for and against the issue at hand. The issue of drive-by shooting, for example, is not an applied ethical issue, since everyone agrees that this practice is grossly immoral. By contrast, the issue of gun control would be an applied ethical issue since there are significant groups of people both for and against gun control.
The other ethical dilemma of a priest as a counselor is whether to be pro-life or pro-choice, where the former means considering life and the later meaning choosing the better option. Pro-life people consider it unethical to procure abortion since they consider it to be murder terminating life that has already began or in process. On the other hand, pro-choice advocates consider the right of the woman in choosing what she wants; suggesting it is unethical to refuse a woman her right to decide on what affects her body (Stocco, 2010). Priest are pro-life people and only give the meaning of life and why it is important not to terminate the pregnancy, using biblical support on the value of life. Considering that a counselor is supposed to present all views on an issue, a priest is bound by his vow to be loyal to church and will only give the religious standing point, leaving the client with only one side of the issue and may not have a choice. Some of the issues a priest will not tell are such as the legal circumstances under which abortion is allowed and access to abortion. More still, since religious views will talk about the spiritual consequences or punishment of abortion, a client will feel intimidated about the issue, and lack the ability to make an independent decision.
Many people who become interested in other issues first start ..
On the other hand, most women seek abortion on the justification of unwanted pregnancies, which most say occur accidentally, which the church opposes. The religious leaders support their claim through the Bible saying that no one has any right to kill another person, including the unborn, and women should not terminate pregnancies just because they do not want them. This has been the main ethical issue in abortion where most people believe that the unborn should be protected to ensure continuity of the life cycle. If life is considered to start at conception, this means the unborn has the right to life just as anybody else and a woman should carry it to term (BBC, 2009). When a priest is the counselor on the issue of abortion, it is expected that he will counsel about sacredness of life and may not allow abortion. Oglesby (2002) says that this is “abortion on demand,” where the stand on abortion depends on evaluation of possible consequences or effects that are posed to the mother upon carrying the child to full term. This is to say that if a mother feels that a child will have some added responsibility that she might not want to have, she would have the right to abort the child. This would raise the rate of abortion considering that cost of raising a child for some women is a reason enough to procure abortion especially in an economic hardship time, which is unethical.